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What is Kyphosis?

Anatomically, when viewed from behind, the human spine should form a straight line from the skull to the pelvis, with a slight natural curvature in the lumbar and cervical areas called “lordosis” and a small hump in the back area called “kyphosis”. becomes. These small indentations and bumps correspond to normal human anatomy. Kyphosis is a condition characterized by excessive forward curvature of the spine. Normally, the spine resembles an S-shape when viewed from the side. However, with kyphosis, the back (chest) curves excessively forward and a hump forms.

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What are the Symptoms of Kyphosis?

Kyphosis is a disease that primarily affects children. It is particularly common in children between the ages of 9 and 13. The first symptoms parents recognize are difficulty standing upright and a hunched back. Kyphosis can significantly affect spinal mobility, and patients may tire more quickly than people with normal spinal alignment. Depending on the severity of the disease, pain in the lower back and small of the back can also occur due to the hunched back. Patients with kyphosis may also have short stature, which can be up to 5 cm depending on the degree of curvature. Kyphosis can sometimes be asymptomatic until it reaches a serious condition. Therefore, regular medical examinations are important.

What are the Types and Causes of Kyphosis?

The causes of kyphosis depend on many variables and unknowns, depending on age and condition. Although there are many factors that can lead to structural kyphosis, in most patients there is an unknown cause, like scoliosis. Kyphosis can be caused by congenital spinal anomalies, osteoporosis and microfractures of the spine in the elderly, or articular rheumatism such as ankylosing spondylitis.

In general, the causes of kyphosis can be listed as follows:

  1. Structural kyphosis and its causes:
  • Congenital anomalies of the spine: The most common structural cause of kyphosis is abnormal development of the bones in the spine. These abnormalities include conditions such as spondylodysplasia, spina bifida and congenital scoliosis.
  • Osteoporosis and microfractures of the spine in the elderly: Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens the bones and makes them brittle. Microfractures in the spine can lead to the development of kyphosis.
  • Articular rheumatism: Articular rheumatism, such as. B. Bechterew’s disease, can cause the joints of the spine to become inflamed and stiff. This can lead to the development of kyphosis.
  • Muscle diseases: Muscle diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy can lead to weakening of the muscles in the spine and the development of kyphosis.
  • Neurological diseases: Neurological diseases such as cerebral palsy can affect muscle control and lead to the development of kyphosis.
  • Some connective tissue diseases: Some connective tissue diseases, such as Marfan syndrome, can lead to weakening of the ligaments in the spine and the development of kyphosis.
  1. Idiopathic kyphosis and its causes:
  • Scheuermann kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is the most common form of kyphosis in adolescence. Although the cause is not fully understood, genetic factors and repeated mechanical stress are thought to play a role.
  • Postural kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by posture disorders. Sitting slouched for long periods of time, leaning forward, or carrying heavy bags can lead to the development of postural kyphosis.


Some other rare causes of kyphosis include:

  • Spinal tumors
  • Infections
  • Injuries

How is Kyphosis Diagnosed?

Our specialists at the MSM Clinic use various methods to diagnose kyphosis. These methods vary depending on the age and condition of the patient. These methods are:

  1. Physical Examination:
  • Our specialist will conduct a physical examination to assess the patient’s posture and the shape and flexibility of the spine.
  • Our doctor will also look for signs of kyphosis, such as: B. Hunchback, muscle weakness or tenderness.
  1. Imaging Tests:
  • X-ray: It is used to measure the entire bone structures of the spine and the degree of curvature.
  • Computed tomography (CT): Used to create more detailed images of bones and soft tissues.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Used to evaluate the spinal cord and adjacent soft tissues.
  1. Other tests:
  • Bone age: Sometimes our bone age can differ from our actual age. When determining the patient’s age when diagnosing kyphosis, both chronological age and bone age are taken into account.
  • Breathing tests: In severe cases of kyphosis, breathing tests may be performed to assess respiratory functions.


When diagnosing kyphosis, our doctor will also consider the following:

  • Degree of curvature of the spine: The degree of curvature plays an important role when planning kyphosis treatment.
  • Reason for Kyphosis: The cause of kyphosis is important in determining treatment options.
  • Area of the spine where the bump is located: The location of the bump can affect the severity and treatment of the kyphosis.
  • Progression of the hump: If the hump increases over time or is stable, this may impact the treatment plan.
  • Secondary health problems: Kyphosis can lead to secondary health problems such as waist and back pain, difficulty breathing and aesthetic problems.

What is the Kyphosis Treatment Process?

Treatment for kyphosis varies depending on age, gender, severity of the hump, and other factors. Treatment methods include follow-up and observation, exercise, corset use and surgical procedures.

  • Kyphosis patients are monitored at intervals based on the severity of the curvature and their age. In mild cases of kyphosis, regular follow-up by monitoring the progression of the curvature may be sufficient. In moderate and severe cases, the frequency of follow-up examinations increases.
  • Exercises strengthen the muscles of the spine and increase flexibility, which can reduce hunching and relieve pain. Corsets are used to stop or slow the curvature of the spine, especially in growing children and adolescents.
  • In severe cases of kyphosis or in cases where other treatments do not respond, surgery may be necessary. This procedure involves fusing bones to correct the curvature of the spine.
  • When choosing the treatment method, factors such as the patient’s age, severity of the hump, the course of the curvature and general health are taken into account. While a corset is particularly preferred for children and adolescents, surgical intervention is more often preferred for adults.


wareness of kyphosis by families and teachers is important because an early diagnosis can influence the treatment process. As an MSM clinic, our team of experts is available to you on the subject of kyphosis.

Randevu / Bilgi Al

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